Not to be confused with Discipline (academia).
School discipline is a required set of actions by a teacher towards a student (or group of students) when the student's behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a rule created by the school system. Discipline guides the children's behaviour or sets limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them.
School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline. These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, timekeeping, social conduct, and work ethic. The term "discipline" is applied to the punishment that is the consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc. The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority students.
The importance of discipline
Disciplining children is important to create a safe and fun learning environment. Discipline requires knowledge, skill, sensitivity and self-confidence; like any art, it is something that one will acquire through training and experience; it becomes easier with practice. Many people confuse discipline with classroom management; discipline is one dimension of classroom management and classroom management is a general term. Discipline can also have a positive influence on both the individual and classroom environment. Utilizing disciplinary actions can be an opportunity to reflect and learn about consequences, instill collective values, and encourage behavior that is acceptable for the classroom. Recognition of the diversity of values within communities can increase understanding and tolerance of different disciplinary techniques. Promoting positive correction of questionable behavior within the classroom dynamic, as opposed to out-of-class punishments like detention, suspension, or expulsion, can encourage learning and discourage future misbehavior. Learning to own one’s bad behavior can also contribute to positive growth in social emotional learning.
Discipline is a set of actions determined by the school district to remedy actions taken by a student that are deemed inappropriate. Some scholars think students misbehave because of the lack of engagement and stimulation in typical school settings, a rigid definition of acceptable behaviors and/or a lack of attention and love in a student's personal life. Recently, scholars have begun to explore alternative explanations for why students are being disciplined, in particular the disproportionate rate of discipline towards African American and Minority students.
- Lack of engagement and stimulation - Students are curious and constantly searching for meaning and stimulation in the school environment. Classes that are too one-dimensional, that fail to involve students sufficiently, are too challenging or are very much information heavy (leaving little room for discussion and consideration), will not satisfy students' curiosities or needs for authentic intellectual stimulation.
- A rigid definition of acceptable behavior - Most students, particularly older ones, are asked to sit at their desks for many minutes at a time and listen, read, and/or take notes. Teachers who fail to offer opportunities for movement and interpersonal engagement are likelier to have to use strictness and rules to maintain law and order.[unreliable source?]
- Lack of attention and love - When students fail to receive the attention that they crave, they are likelier to find other ways to get it, even if it means drawing negative attention to themselves and even negative consequences. The more teachers let their students know how much they care about them and value their work, the likelier they are to respect a teacher's request and conform to their expectation.
- Disproportionate Discipline – African-American students, particularly boys, are disciplined more often in schools than any other demographic. African-American boys are also most likely to receive out-of-school suspensions. African-American boys were also the most likely to be labeled by faculty or school administration as overtly aggressive. Research suggests that when given an opportunity to choose among several disciplinary options for a relatively minor offense, teachers and school administrators often choose more severe punishment for black students than for white students for the same offense. Researchers who have examined these problems in American schools argue that schools use zero-tolerance discipline policies to, in effect, criminalize misdeeds such as dress code violations or talking back to a teacher. Disciplinary methods also vary based on the student’s socioeconomic status. While high-income students more often reported receiving mild and moderate consequences (e.g., teacher reprimand, seat reassignment), low-income students reported receiving more severe consequences, sometimes delivered in a less-than-professional manner (e.g., yelled at in front of class, made to stand in hall all day, search of personal belongings). School administrators may be implicitly biased towards students of colors and students of low socioeconomic status and need to find more equitable ways of disciplining their students in school.
School discipline practices are generally informed by theory from psychologists and educators. There are a number of theories to form a comprehensive discipline strategy for an entire school or a particular class.
- Positive approach is grounded in teachers' respect for students. Instills in students a sense of responsibility by using youth/adult partnerships to develop and share clear rules, provide daily opportunities for success, and administer in-school suspension for noncompliant students. Based on Glasser's Reality Therapy. Research (e.g., Allen) is generally supportive of the PAD program.
- Teacher effectiveness training differentiates between teacher-owned and student-owned problems, and proposes different strategies for dealing with each. Students are taught problem-solving and negotiation techniques. Researchers (e.g., Emmer and Aussiker) find that teachers like the programme and that their behaviour is influenced by it, but effects on student behaviour are unclear.
- Adlerian approaches is an umbrella term for a variety of methods which emphasize understanding the individual's reasons for maladaptive behavior and helping misbehaving students to alter their behavior, while at the same time finding ways to get their needs met. Named for psychiatrist Alfred Adler. These approaches have shown some positive effects on self-concept, attitudes, and locus of control, but effects on behavior are inconclusive (Emmer and Aussiker). Not only were the statistics on suspensions and vandalism significant, but also the recorded interview of teachers demonstrates the improvement in student attitude and behaviour, school atmosphere, academic performance, and beyond that, personal and professional growth.
- Appropriate school learning theory and educational philosophy is a strategy for preventing violence and promoting order and discipline in schools, put forward by educational philosopher Daniel Greenberg and practised by the Sudbury Valley School.
Detention is one of the most common punishments in schools in the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other countries. It requires the pupil to report to a designated area of the school during a specified time on a school day (typically either recess or after school) and remain there for a specified period of time, but also may require a pupil to report to that part of school at a certain time on a non-school day, e.g. "Saturday detention" at some US, UK, and Irish schools (especially for serious offenses not quite serious enough for suspension). [clarification needed]
Typically, in schools in the US, UK, and Singapore, if one misses a detention, then another is added or the student gets a more serious punishment. In UK schools, for offenses too serious for a normal detention but not serious enough for a detention requiring the pupil to return to school at a certain time on a non-school day, a detention can require a pupil to return to school 1–2 hours after school ends on a school day, e.g. "Friday Night Detention".
In Germany detention is less common. In some states like Baden-Württemberg there is detention to rework missed school hours, but in others like Rheinland-Pfalz it is prohibited by law. In schools where some classes are held on Saturdays, pupils may get detention on a Saturday even if it is a non-school day for them.
In China, long-time detention is less common than in the US, the UK, Ireland, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other countries. However, short-time detention by teachers is still common. Teachers may ask the students to do missed work after school. Keeping students after school is common, but usually lasts no more than 3 to 5 hours.
In Australia, the policy for school detention: the principal must consider circumstances when determining what a reasonable time and place for detention entails and make sure that any special conditions relating to the imposition of detention are specified in the school's 'Student Engagement Policy'. The conditions that schools must ensure are that: no more than half the time for recess is used for detention, when students are kept after school, parents should be informed at least the day before detention, and detention should not exceed 45 minutes.
Counseling is also provided when a kid/teen/adult will have to see a school counselor if they behave badly. The purpose of counseling is to help the student recognize their mistakes and find positive ways to make changes in the student’s life. Counseling can also help the student clarify the school's expectations, as well as understand the consequences of failing to meet those standards.
Suspension or temporary exclusion is mandatory leave assigned to a student as a form of punishment that can last anywhere from one day to a few weeks, during which the student is not allowed to attend regular lessons. In some US, UK, Australian and Canadian schools, there are two types of suspension: In-School (ISS, Internal Exclusion or Isolation) and Out-of-School (OSS, Off-Campus Suspension, External Exclusion). In-school suspension requires the student to report to school as usual, but attend a designated suspension classroom or room all day. Out-of-school suspension bans the student from being on school grounds during school hours while school is in session. Students who breach a suspension by attending school may be arrested for and charged with trespassing. This could result in an extension of suspension, community service, and sometimes jail time. Students who continue to breach a suspension could be sentenced to expulsion and longer, more severe punishments. Students are also not allowed to attend after school activities (such as proms, sporting events, etc.) while suspended from school. Schools are usually required to notify the student's parents/guardians of the reason for and duration of an out-of-school or in-school suspension. Students are often required to continue to learn and complete assignments during their suspension.
Main article: School corporal punishment
Throughout the history of education, the most common means of maintaining discipline in schools was corporal punishment. While a child was in school, a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent, with many forms of parental discipline or rewards open to them. This often meant that students were commonly chastised with the birch, cane, paddle, strap or yardstick if they did something wrong.
Corporal punishment in schools has now disappeared from most Western countries, including all European countries. In the United States, corporal punishment is not used in public schools in 34 states, banned in 31, permitted in 19, of which only 16 actually have school districts actively administering corporal punishment. Every U.S. state except New Jersey and Iowa permits corporal punishment in private schools, however an increasing number of private schools have abandoned the practice, especially Catholic schools, nearly all of which now ban. Thirty-one U.S. states as well as the District of Columbia have banned it from public schools, most recently New Mexico in 2011. The other 19 states (mostly in the South) continue to allow corporal punishment in public schools. Of the 19 which permit the practice, three – Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming have no public schools that actually use corporal punishment as of 2016. Paddling is still used to a significant (though declining) degree in some public schools in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. Private schools in these and most other states may also use it, though many choose not to do so.
Official corporal punishment, often by caning, remains commonplace in schools in some Asian, African and Caribbean countries.
Most mainstream schools in most other countries retain punishment for misbehavior, but it usually takes non-corporal forms such as detention and suspension.
In China, school corporal punishment was completely banned under the Article 29 of the Compulsory Education Act of the People's Republic of China, but in practice, beating by schoolteachers is still common, especially in rural areas.
In Australia, school corporal punishment has been banned in most states.
- New South Wales (NSW) – Banned in government schools in 1990 and in non-government schools in 1995.
- Queensland (QLD) – Repealed provisions that allowed for corporal punishment in state schools in 1989. Still permitted in private schools as of 2016.
- Victoria (VIC) – Banned in government schools in 1985 and non-government schools in 2006.
- Tasmania (TAS) – Banned in both government and non-government schools in 1999.
- Australian Capital Territory (ACT) – Banned in all schools in 1997.
- Northern Territory (NT) – Banned in government schools in 2016. In 2009, it was banned in non-government schools as a part of school registration requirements.
- South Australia (SA) – Repealed provisions that allowed for corporal punishment in schools in 1991. Still permitted in private schools as of 2016.
- Western Australia (WA) – Corporal punishment was banned in government schools in 1999, but regulations did not extend to non-government schools. However, it is banned in both government and non-government schools as of 2016.
Main article: Expulsion (education)
Expulsion, exclusion, withdrawing, or permanent exclusion terminates the student's education. This is the last resort, when all other methods of discipline have failed. However, in extreme situations, it may also be used for a single offense. Some education authorities have a nominated school in which all excluded students are collected; this typically has a much higher staffing level than mainstream schools. In some US public schools, expulsions are so serious that they require an appearance before the Board of Education or the court system. In the UK, head teachers may make the decision to exclude, but the student's parents have the right of appeal to the local education authority. It was completely banned for compulsory schools in China. This has proved controversial in cases where the head teacher's decision has been overturned (and his or her authority thereby undermined), and there are proposals to abolish the right of appeal. In the United States, when it comes to student discipline, there is a marked difference in procedure between public and private institutions. With public schools, the school must provide the student with constitutional due process protections as public educational institutions operate as an extension of state governments. Conversely, with private schools, the student can be expelled for any reason – provided that the expulsion was not “arbitrary and capricious.” Generally, as long as a private school follows the procedures in its student handbook, a court will not view its actions as arbitrary and capricious. Expulsion from a private school is a more straightforward matter, since the school can merely terminate its contract with the parents if the pupil does not have (a) sibling(s) in the same school.
Main article: Restorative justice
In schools, restorative justice is an offshoot of the model used by some courts and law enforcement; it seeks to repair the harm that has been done by acknowledging the impact on the victim, community, and offender, accepting responsibility for the wrongdoing, and repairing the harm that was caused. Restorative practices can “also include preventive measures designed to build skills and capacity in students as well as adults." Some examples of preventative measures in restorative practices might include teachers and students devising classroom expectations together or setting up community building in the classroom. Restorative justice also focuses on justice as needs and obligations, expands justice as conversations between the offender, victim and school, and recognizes accountability as understanding the impact of actions and repairing the harm. Traditional styles of discipline do not always work well for students across every cultural community. As an alternative to the normative approaches of corporal punishment, detention, counseling, suspension, and expulsion, restorative justice was established to give students a voice in their consequences, as well as an opportunity to make a positive contribution to their community. This method of discipline typically involves peer-mediation or adult-supervised conversations surrounding a perceived offence. Each student has the ability to contribute to the conversation, the person who has misbehaved has the opportunity not only to give their side of the story but also has a say in their consequence. Consequences defy the traditional methods of punitive punishment and instead give students an opportunity for restoration. Restorative justice focuses on relationship building and the community as a whole over the individual student and their offence, creating a sense that everyone has a part in the community and it is everyone’s responsibility to uphold the values of the particular community. This is a method that not only increases an understanding of perceived community values, but is also a method thought to work well in cultures and communities where there is a high value on the community, rather than just on the individual.
- ^ ab"What is Discipline?". users.metu.edu.tr. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- ^"What is Discipline?". users.metu.edu.tr. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- ^Scarlett. W. George (Feb 24, 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Classroom Management
- ^What is Positive School Discipline? (2013). Education Development Center. http://positiveschooldiscipline.promoteprevent.org/what-positive-school-discipline
- ^Chadsey, Terry and Jody McVittie (August 2006). The Positive Discipline Association.http://www.positivediscipline.org/resources/Documents/PDSbrchr-8-06.pdf
- ^ abc"Why Kids Misbehave in Classrooms". The Huffington Post. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- ^Rudd, Thomas. “Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline: Implicit Bias Is Heavily Implicated.” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. Accessed December 01, 2016. http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/racial-disproportionality-in-school-discipline-implicit-bias-is-heavily-implicated/
- ^“When Schools Are Forced to Practice Race-Based Discipline.” The Atlantic. Accessed December 01, 2016. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/08/teachers-say-no-disparate-impact-discipline/402144/
- ^“Study Tracks Vast Racial Gap In School Discipline In 13 Southern States.” NPR. Accessed December 06, 2016. http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/08/25/434650842/study-tracks-vast-racial-gap-in-school-discipline-in-13-southern-states
- ^Skiba, Russell. “The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment.” The Urban Review 34, no. 4 (December 2002)
- ^ abcCotton (December 1990). "Schoolwide and Classroom Discipline". School Improvement Research Series. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. 5. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. )
- ^Efficacy of Class Meetings in Elementary Schools, Ann Roeder Platt, B.A., California State University, Sacramento. The University of San Francisco, The Effectiveness of Alderian Parent and Teacher Study Groups in Changing Child Maladaptive Behavior in a Positive Direction. Jane Nelsen
- ^Greenberg, 1987
- ^The Sudbury Valley School (1970). Law and Order: Foundations of Discipline, The Crisis in American Education — An Analysis and a Proposal. (p. 49-55). Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- ^Greenberg, D. (1987). With Liberty and Justice for All, Free at Last, The Sudbury Valley School. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- ^Greenberg, D. (1987). Back to Basics, The Sudbury Valley School Experience. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
- ^"Behaviour and discipline in schools: Guidance for governing bodies". Department for Education (UK). 17 July 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- ^Training, Department of Education and. "Detentions". education.qld.gov.au. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- ^"Detention". www.education.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- ^Skiba, Russel (2006). "Zero tolerance, suspension, and expulsion: Questions of equity and effectiveness". In Evertson, C.M. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Erlbaum. pp. 1063–1092.
- ^"Discipline Policy and Procedures"(PDF). Delran Township School District, New Jersey. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
- ^ abAmerican Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force (2008). "Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations". American Psychologist. 63: 852–862. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.63.9.852. PMID 19086747.
- ^ abcdefgh"Federal Government rules out return of corporal punishment, after curriculum adviser says it can be 'very effective'". ABC NEWS. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- ^"Improving Behaviour and Attendance: Guidance on Exclusion from Schools and Pupil Referral Units"(PDF), Teachernet, Department for Children, Schools and Families, England, retrieved 25 January 2009
- ^"The Difference Between Public and Private School Disciplinary Hearings".
- ^Davis, Matt. (2015). Restorative Justice: Resources for Schools. Edutopia. Retrieved 1 December 2016. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/restorative-justice-resources-matt-davis
- ^Dalporto, Deva (2013). Restorative Justice: A Different Approach to Discipline. We Are Teachers. Retrieved 1 December 2016. http://www.weareteachers.com/restorative-justice-a-different-approach-to-discipline/
- ^Editors of Rethinking Schools (2014). Restorative Justice: What it is and is not. Rethinking Schools. Retrieved 1 December 2016.http://www.rethinkingschools.org/archive/29_01/edit1291.shtml
Discipline is very necessary to all to live a successful and happy life. Here we have provided number of essay on discipline for your school going kids and children. Students in the school are generally assigned to write discipline essay. So, you can help your kids using these essays.
Essay on Discipline
Discipline Essay 1 (100 words)
Discipline is the most important thing in everyone’s life. Without discipline one cannot live a happy life. It is the act of living life following some rules and regulations. Discipline is everything which we do in the right way in right time. It leads us on the right path. We all follow various types of discipline in our daily lives. There are many examples like we wake up in the early morning, drink a glass of water, go to washroom to get fresh, do brush our teeth, take bath, take breakfast, go to school in uniform at right time, etc all are discipline.
Discipline Essay 2 (150 words)
Discipline is highly valuable in our every walk of life. We have to follow it all time whether we are in the school, home, office, institutions, factory, playground, battlefield or other places. It is the most important necessity of the happy and peaceful life. It gives us lots of great opportunity, right way to go ahead, to learn new things in life, to experiences more within less time, etc. and grow. Whereas, lack of discipline cause lots of confusion and disorders. Indiscipline gives no peace and progress in the life instead creates lots of problem.
Discipline is following the orders of our elders, superior officers, teachers and parents who lead us towards success. We need to follow rules, obey orders and behave well in orderly manner. We should value the importance of discipline in our daily lives. People, who are not disciplined in their lives; face lots of problems and get disappointments.
Discipline Essay 3 (200 words)
Discipline is the right way of doing things in well behaved manner. It needs a control over the mind and body. Somebody has natural property of self-discipline however somebody has to develop it inside them. Discipline is the ability to control on the feeling and do right thing at right time as well as overcome the weaknesses. Life without discipline is incomplete and unsuccessful. We need to follow some rules by respecting our elders and seniors.
It is very necessary tool for everyone in every walk of life whether at home, office, playground or other place. Our daily lives would become unorganized if we do not follow the discipline. Everything in this world has discipline and organized by the discipline. Air, water and land give us the way to live life. The whole world, country, society, community, etc would become disorganized without discipline as everything needs discipline. Discipline is the nature which exists in everything made by the nature.
Discipline Essay 4 (250 words)
Discipline is being obedient and have self-controlled behaviour to follow orders of proper authority. Discipline is of great importance in the whole life and needed in every walk of life. It is required by everyone who needs to work on any project seriously. It we do not obey and follow the orders, rules of the superiors; definitely we would suffer problems and may be failure.
We should always be in discipline and obey the order of our parents and teachers to be successful in our lives. We should get up from the bed in the early morning. We should drink water and go to toilet to fresh, brush our teeth, take bath and then take our healthy breakfast. We should never go to school without taking food. We should do our homework in clean and neat way at right time. We should never deny, disrespect, and unhappy our parents and follow their all orders. We should go to school at right time and in the proper uniform. In the classroom, we should do prayer to the God according to the school norms. We should follow the teacher’s orders, do proper work in good hand writing and learn everything in right manner.
We should not misbehave with the teachers, principal, maid, gate keepers or students. We should behave well with all whether at home, school, office or other places. No one can achieve anything big in the life without discipline. Thus, we all should follow obey of our parents and teachers to be a successful person in the life.
Discipline Essay 5 (300 words)
Discipline is the act of keeping our body, mind and soul under control and does all the works in right manner by following the orders of the parents, teachers or elders of the family. It is the act to train our mind to accept rules and regulations to be in discipline. We can see the example of real discipline in every natural resource in our daily lives. Sun rises and sets at right time every day, moon rises and sets at right time, morning and evening come daily without getting late, river always run, parents always love, teachers always teach us and many more. So why we should be back in our life, we too should follow all the discipline necessary in our lives to go ahead without suffering from problems.
We should follow parents, teachers and our elders. We should listen them to know about their experiences and learn from their wins and failures. Whenever we start looking deeply at anything, it gives us a valuable lesson in the life. The seasons come and go in right pattern, sky rains and stops, etc becomes at right time to make our lives in balance. So, we too need to be in discipline to maintain the life cycle on this earth. We have lots of responsibilities to our life, parents, teachers, family, environment, atmosphere, etc. As a human being, we have great mind to think, decide about right or wrong, and implement our plans to change it into action. So, we are highly responsible to know the necessity and importance of this discipline in our lives.
Indiscipline causes lots of confusion in the life and makes a human being irresponsible and lazy. It lowers the confidence level and makes mind unsure to do anything even a simple work. However, being in discipline lead us ahead towards highest ladder of the life.
Discipline Essay 6 (400 words)
Discipline is something which keeps everyone under good control. It motivates a person to go ahead in the life and get success. Every one of us has experienced discipline in different forms according to their own requirement and understanding towards life. It availability of it in everyone’s life is very necessary to go on the right path. Without discipline life becomes inactive and useless as nothing go according to the plan. If we need to implement our strategy in right way about any project to be completed, we need to be in discipline first. Discipline is generally of two types. One is induced discipline in which we learn to be in discipline by others and another one is self-discipline which comes from own mind to be in discipline. However sometimes, we need motivation from someone effective personality to improve our self-discipline habit.
We need discipline in many ways at many stages of our life so it is good to practice discipline from the childhood. Self-discipline means differently to different people such as for students, it means motivating ownself to get concentrated on the study and complete assignments in right time. However, for working person, it means to get up from bed on time in the morning, do exercise to get fit, go to office on time, and do job tasks properly. Self-discipline is highly required by everyone to have, as in modern time no one has time for others to motivate towards being in discipline. Without discipline one can be failure in the life, she/he cannot enjoy academic success or other success in the career.
Self-discipline is required in every field like dieting (it needs to control over fatty and junk foods), regular exercise (it needs to concentrate), etc. One can get health disorders and fatty body without control over food so it needs discipline. Parents need to develop self-discipline habits as they need to teach their kids a good discipline. They need to motivate them all time to behave well and do everything at right time. Some naughty children do not follow their parent’s discipline, in such cases parents need to have dare and patience to teach their naughty children. Everyone has different time and capacity to learn the meaning of discipline according to the nature. So, never give up and always try to get in discipline, as a small step can be converted to large step a day.
Paragraph on Discipline
Speech on Discipline