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Richard Morris Adams Cpm Homework

Adams, B. C. 2008. Discover the power of Excel 2007. Journal of Accountancy (February): 60-65.

Albright, T. 1995. Software for activity-based management. Journal of Cost Management (Spring): 6-25.

Albright, T. L. and T. Smith 1996. Software for activity-based costing. Journal of Cost Management (10): 47-58.

Alexander, R. A. 1996. Teaching good systems design for spreadsheet projects. Journal of Accounting Education 14(1): 113-122.

Alger, M. 2003. Managing a business as a portfolio of customers to drive profit. Strategic Finance (June): 54-57. (Using intelligence software to focus on customers).

Anders, S. B. 2015. Four leading money management apps. The CPA Journal (September): 64-65.

Anders, S. B. 2015. IRS2Go, Quick Tax Reference, TouchTax, and Monaeo. The CPA Journal (May): 72-73.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Fischer. 2015. Top choices in tax software. The CPA Journal (November): 22-35.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Carol. 2009. A clear look at tax software. The CPA Journal (May): 20-29.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Fischer. 2010. A clear look at tax software. The CPA Journal (May): 14-21.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Fischer. 2011. A clear look at tax software: 2011 annual survey of New York State tax professionals. The CPA Journal (November): 16-24.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Fischer. 2012. A clear look at tax software: 2012 annual survey of New York State tax professionals. The CPA Journal (November): 16-25.

Anders, S. B. and C. M. Fischer. 2013. A new look at tax software: 2013 annual survey of New York State tax professionals. The CPA Journal (December): 20-29.

Anderson, S. 1998. JAVA unplugs time and expense reporting. Management Accounting (October): 52-53.

Anderson, U., R. G. May and C. A. Miles. 1988. Variables sampling software: Development and classroom testing. Issues in Accounting Education (Spring): 156-173.

Appelbaum, D., A. Kogan and M. A. Vasarhelyi. 2017. An introduction to data analysis for auditors and accountants. The CPA Journal (February): 32-37. (Summary).

Arnesen, S. and J. Thompson. 2003. ERP merger mania. Strategic Finance (October): 30-36.

Arnesen, S. and J. Thompson. 2005. How to budget for enterprise software. Strategic Finance (January): 43-47.

Arnesen, S. and S. Elder. 1997. What you need to know about accounting and finance software. Management Accounting (August Supplement): 26-28, 30-31.

Arora, A., J. P. Caulkins and R. Telang. 2006. Research note: Sell first, fix later: Impact of patching on software quality. Management Science (March): 465-471. (JSTOR link).

August, T. and T. I. Tunca. 2006. Network software security and user incentives. Management Science (November): 1703-1720. (JSTOR link).

August, T. and T. I. Tunca. 2011. Who should be responsible for software security? A comparative analysis of liability policies in network environments. Management Science (May): 934-959.

Ayres, D., J. Schmutte and J. Stanfield. 2017. Expect the unexpected: Risk assessment using Monte Carlo simulations: With software such as Microsoft Excel, CPAs can perform statistical simulations to assess the potential upside and risk of business decisions. Journal of Accountancy (November): 42-48.

Bagozzi, R. P. and U. M. Dholakia. 2006. Open source software user communities: A study of participation in Linux user groups. Management Science (July): 1099-1115. (JSTOR link).

Bagranoff, N. A. 1993. Adopting commercial software in the accounting classroom: A focus on learning. Journal of Accounting Education 11(2): 275-286.

Bagranoff, N. A. 1999. Select your next system with high-tech tools. Strategic Finance (May): 75-79. (Discussion of decision support software available from a variety of vendors including software related internet sites).

Bailey, C. D. and J. S. Soileau. 2011. Q-analytics: An ethics case on unlicensed software usage. Journal of Accounting Education 29(1): 50-59.

Bain, H. 2016. Nexus and the small business. Strategic Finance (May): 19-20. (Tax implications).

Baldwin, C. Y. and K. B. Clark. 2006. The architecture of participation: Does code architecture mitigate free riding in the open source development model? Management Science (July): 1116-1127. (JSTOR link).

Ballou, B., D. L. Heitger and L. Donnell. 2010. Creating effective dashboards. Strategic Finance (March): 26-32.

Baril, C. P., L. Betancourt and J. W. Briggs. 2005. How to "Excel" at options valuation. Journal of Accountancy (December): 57-86.

Barry, E. J., C. F. Kemerer and S. A. Slaughter. 2006. Environmental volatility, development decisions, and software volatility: A longitudinal analysis. Management Science (March): 448-464. (JSTOR link).

Bauch, D. J. 1997. Software review. Management Accounting (July): 63.

Baxendale, S.J. 1999. Software for activity-based management. Journal of Cost Management (March/April): 11-24.

Baxter, R. J. and J. C. Thibodeau. 2011. Does the use of intelligent learning and assessment software enhance the acquisition of financial accounting knowledge? Issues in Accounting Education (November): 647-656.

Bean, D. 2002. Learn Peach Tree Accounting. Wordware Publishing.

Berheussen, B. A. 2014. Power to business professors: Automatic grading of problem-solving tasks in a spreadsheet. Journal of Accounting Education 32(1): 76-87.

Berry, M. J. A. and G. S. Linoff. 2004. Data Mining Techniques: For Marketing, Sales, and Customer Relationship Management. Wiley Computer Publishing.

Betty, G. and T. Dimnik. 1993. OOPs. Management Accounting (May): 50-53. (Refers to object-oriented programming used for software development).

Bhansali, C., A. Watson, S. Ernst, S. Cook, et al. 2006. Executive roundtable: Accounting software. Journal of Accountancy (May):94-97.

Bhattacharya, S. and W. Wasson. 1997. The implementation of a new financial applications system for the El Camino school district: A teaching case to expose students to the vagaries of software selection during new systems development projects. Issues in Accounting Education (Spring): 113-128.

Blocher, E., K. Shastri, D. E. Stout and M. R. Swain. 2010. Instructional case: Blue Ridge Revisited - Integrating ABC and OROS Quick® software. Journal of Accounting Education 27(2): 85-103.

Bonaccorsi, A., S. Giannangeli and C. Rossi. 2006. Entry strategies under competing standards: Hybrid business models in the open source software industry. Management Science (July): 1085-1098. (JSTOR link).

Bonner, P. 2011. Tax software survey. Journal of Accountancy (September): 24-29.

Bonner, P. 2012. 2012 tax software survey. Journal of Accountancy (September): 23-27.

Bonner, P. 2013. 2013 tax software survey. Journal of Accountancy (September): 56-57.

Borden, J. P. 1991. Software for activity-based management. Journal of Cost Management (Fall): 6-38.

Borden, J. P. 1994. Activity-based management software. Journal of Cost Management (Winter): 39-49.

Borthick, A. F. and G. P. Wentworth. 1998. Will your company be year 2000-compliant? Management Accounting (July): 31-32, 34-36.

Borthick A. F., G. P. Schneider and T. R. Viscelli. 2017. Analyzing data for decision making: Integrating spreadsheet modeling and database querying. Issues in Accounting Education (February): 59-66.

Boyle, R. D. 2002. Doing business with an application service provider. Strategic Finance (March): 24-28.

Bradbard, D. A., C. Alvis and R. Morris. 2014. Spreadsheet usage by management accountants: An exploratory study. Journal of Accounting Education 32(4): 24-30.

Bradley, S. E. 2009. Windows 7: Is it right for you? Journal of Accountancy (November): 32-37.

Bramer, M. 2007. Principles of Data Mining (Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science. Springer.

Braun, K. W. 2017. Excel-based active learning: Using Excel projects to engage students with management accounting topics. Strategic Finance (August): 42-49.

Bressler, L. A. and M. S. Bressler. 2006. How entrepreneurs choose and use accounting information systems. Strategic Finance (June): 56-60. (Survey).

Briner, R. F., D. T. Pearson and J. E. Gauntt Jr. 1987. A microcomputer application for attribute sampling. Journal of Accounting Education 5(1): 161-166.

Brink, W. D. and L. S. Lee. 2015. The effect of tax preparation software on tax compliance: A research note. Behavioral Research In Accounting 27(1): 121-135.

Brown, L. D., R. J. Huefner and J. Weintrop. 1988. Financial data bases in accounting doctoral programs. Issues in Accounting Education (Fall): 228-240.

Brown, R. M. and B. Ruf. 1989. Applying software design principles to accounting software: A direct manipulation approach. Journal of Information Systems (Fall): 41-54.

Buckoff, T. A. and B. K. P. Kramer. 2005. Using Excel to ferret out fraud. Strategic Finance (April): 46-49.

Buttonow, J. 2012. IRS audits of small business software files. Journal of Accountancy (January): 50-54.

Carbone, J. P. and J. R. Hudicka. 1998. Layered systems deployment. Management Accounting (December): 27-30. (Using Complex Objects software to design information systems in record time).

Carlson, N. F. 1999. High-tech exec. Strategic Finance (September): 56, 58-59. (Related to software use).

Castelluccio, M. 2000. Can the enterprise run on free software? Strategic Finance (March): 50-55.

Castelluccio, M. 2000. Give away the store and get rich. Strategic Finance (April): 59-63. (Project management software).

Castelluccio, M. 2015. A new Bluetooth in 2016. Strategic Finance (December): 55-56.

Castelluccio, M. 2015. Robot analysts and robot reporters. Strategic Finance (September): 55-57.

Castelluccio, M. 2015. Siri's competition. Strategic Finance (October): 55-57.

Castelluccio, M. 2015. The new Microsoft universe. Strategic Finance (November): 55-57.

Chalos, P. 1988. A spreadsheet analysis of different costing systems. Journal of Accounting Education 6(2): 345-353.

Cheng, N. S., L. L. Eng, Y. T. Mak and C. L. Chong. 2003. Performance measures in the media and software division of Kao (Singapore) Private Limited. Journal of Accounting Education 21(2): 157-184.

Christensen, A. L. and M. M. Eining. 1991. Factors influencing software piracy: Implications for accountants. Journal of Information Systems (Spring): 67-80.

Christensen, D. and P. Schneider. 2017. Allocating service department costs with Excel: Excel's iterative calculation option makes it easier to use the reciprocal method to allocate service department costs. Strategic Finance (May): 50-55.

Cieslak, D. 2014. Five apps for CPAs. Journal of Accountancy (April): 18.

Cieslak, D. 2014. The CPA technology gift guide. Journal of Accountancy (December): 52-54, 56.

Cieslak, D. 2015. The 2015. CPA technology gift guide. Journal of Accountancy (December): 26-30. (Laptops, tablets, watches and other gadgets include: Google Cardboard at google.com/get/carboard, Stratos all in one smart card at stratoscard.com, SONICable charging cable at sonicable.com, TIVO and TIVO Roamio OTA antenna and recording device at tivo.com, Apple watch at apple.com, Pebble Time/Pebble Time Round watches at pebble.com, Ring Video Doorbell at ring.com, Bose Soundlink Color Bluetooh speaker at bose.com, Samsung Portable SSDT1 at samsung.com, Microsoft Surfact Book at microsoftstore.com, Microsoft Surface Pro 4 at microsoftstore.com, Lenovo ThinkPad X1 Carbon at lenovo.com, and Lenovo Yoga 3 Pro at lenovo.com).

Clark, W. 1997. The new breed of analytic applications. Management Accounting (December): 57-59. (Developing forward-looking scenarios).

Clyman, J. 2004. Business IT: Rent or buy? Many companies are outsourcing IT duties to third parties and reaping benefits. PC Magazine (October 19): 129-132, 134, 136, 138. (Note).

Cockburn, I. M. and M. J. MacGarvie. 2011. Entry and patenting in the software industry. Management Science (May): 915-933.

Collins, J. C. 2006. Small business software grows up. Journal of Accountancy (March): 50-56.

Collins, J. C. 2009. The tech-savvy CPA. Journal of Accountancy (June): 50-55.

Collins, J. C. 2011. A quick guide to QuickBooks. Journal of Accountancy (December): 24-29.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Microsoft Office 2013. Journal of Accountancy (April): 32-40.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (August): 68-70, 72.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (September): 78-81.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (October): 82-84, 86.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Technology Q& A. Journal of Accountancy (November): 66-68, 70.

Collins, J. C. 2013. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (December): 76-78, 80-81. (A digital dashboard in Excel workbook, etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2014. 11 QuickBooks tips for producing stellar reports. Journal of Accountancy (October): 28-33.

Collins, J. C. 2014. 11 tips to optimize QuickBooks reporting. Journal of Accountancy (September): 64-69.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (January): 63-64, 66-68.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (February): 66-69.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (March): 72-74, 76. (Excel's calculation errors, Words templates for letters and contracts, Anonymous e-mail, etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (April):68-72.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (May): 70-72, 74.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (June): 75-78.

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (July): 88-91. (Microsoft Office sharing arrangement, Creating Gantt charts with Excel trickery, etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (August): 82-84, 86-87. (Notes on DuckDuckGo and Disconnect Search protect your internet activity, and Excel PivotTable etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (September): 106-109. (Charts with Excel).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (October): 68-71. (Excel pivot table).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (November): 88-90, 92. (Adding slicers to filter the pivot table etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2014. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (December): 78-81. (Microsoft Power Map for Excel, etc.).

Collins, J. C. 2015. Boost your computer's performance: Small (and not so small) changes can add up to big improvements in the speed and efficiency of Windows PCs. Journal of Accountancy (September): 66-70, 72, 74-75.

Collins, J. C. 2015. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (September): 106-108, 110-111. (Search filters, Social media tips, and Cloud security solutions).

Collins, J. C. 2015. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (October): 92-96. (Tips for Microsoft Outlook and Excel, plus several gadgets and apps: Scanning mouse, Laser pointer, Portable battery booster, Electronic credit card holder, Portable printer, Charging hub, Single monitor, Amazon price checker app, QR code reader app, Tripit app, WatsApp, the OpenTable app, and Waze app).

Collins, J. C. 2015. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (December): 86-90. (High capacity refillable ink printers, Microsoft Excel date conversions, ideal setting for Microsoft Word, and page breaks in Microsoft Excel).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Data mining your general ledger with Excel. Journal of Accountancy (January): 27-32.

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (January): 76-78, 80-81. (Organize your photos with Google; Find a lost document in Microsoft Word; and Modify auto-correct; Windows 10 Get to the control panel; Using excel to quickly count workdays).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (February): 68-73. (How to insert different headers and footers in Word; 3 ways to calculate internal rate of return in Excel; How to encrypt email with Gmail and Outlook.com; Securing your Gmail account).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (March): 74-78. (New mapping tools on Excel 2016; Advanced calculators for your smartphone; Motorola Turbo 2 update).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (April): 66-69. (Default Google Chrome to incognito mode; Tricks for typing in Word tables; What fonts work best in Excel?).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (May): 90-95. (How to connect numbered lists; Amazon leapfrogs RFID shopping; Rules for designing Excel workbooks).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (June): 82-87. (How to evaluate complex formulas; How to reference vertical cells horizontally; How to number your items in a paragraph format; A simple solution to a new issue with Word's speech recognition tool).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (July): 84-88, 90. (Prevent Windows 10 from spying on you; Waterproof your smartphone; Remote support using Windows Quick Assist; How to suggest location corrections for incorrect maps online; Enable system protection in Windows 10).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (August): 70-73. (iPhone calculator tips; Modify Excel's default blank workbook).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (September): 68-73. (How to link Microsoft Excel text boxes to data cells; Update on enabling system protection in Windows 10; Microsoft Windows 3 methods for recovering lost administrative passwords; Ways to master Excel and Word on your own).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (October): 64-68, 70. (Microsoft Outlook 2016 search tips; Amazon Echo vs. Google Home).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (November): 70-75. (Price-checking apps, Fixing a proofing formula that fails every time in Microsoft Excel, Accounting and ERP systems: A look inside drillable financial statements, Enable Microsoft Word's auto recovery tool, and How to make Social Security numbers private).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Technology Q&A. Journal of Accountancy (December): 70-75. (Rules for designing Excel workbooks, 3 ways to calculate internal rate of return in Excel, New mapping tools on Excel 2017).

Collins, J. C. 2017. Using Excel and Benford's Law to detect fraud. Journal of Accountancy (April): 44-50.

Collins, K. 2003. The CFO's wish list. Strategic Finance (April): 42-45. (Software for enterprise contract management of vendors).

Cong, Y., A. Kogan and M. A. Vasarhelyi. 2007. Extraction of structure and content from the Edgar database: A template-based approach. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting (4): 69-86.

Cox, P. 2015. Access: 12 ways of Access. Strategic Finance (December): 60-61.

Cox, P. 2015. Access fill down. Strategic Finance (October): 60-61.

Cox, P. Access running totals. Strategic Finance (November): 60-61.

Cox, R. 2001. Online and on the money: We crunch the numbers on web-based accounting services - and help you decide if it's time to move your books to the web. PC Magazine (February 20): 144-152.

Coy, D. and W. O'Grady. 1992. The changing use of spreadsheets by accountants in New Zealand: A comparison of 1991 with 1986. Journal of Information Systems (Fall): 171-181.

Crafton, T. W. 2002. Do you really know your customers? Strategic Finance (October): 55-57. (Using customer relationship software).

Crawford, D., D. R. Franz and G. R. Smith Jr. 1997. Computing employee stock option values with a spreadsheet. Management Accounting (July): 44, 46-48.

Cusumano. M. A. 1991. Japan's Software Factories: A Challenge to U. S. Management. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cutis, H. L. and R. J. Alphonso. 2000. Pros & cons of ASPs. Strategic Finance (September): 34-38. (Application service providers).

Dance, D. R. 1995. How to choose a financial software consultant. Management Accounting (September): 32-37.

Dance, D. R. 1996. The three phases of implementation. Management Accounting (February): 35-38, 40. (Planning, installation, and post-implementation management of software).

Dance, D. R. 1997. Mind mapping your way to the right software. Management Accounting (April): 36, 38, 40, 42-43, 46.

Davenport, T. H. and J. G. Harris. 2005. Automated decision making comes of age. MIT Sloan Management Review (Summer): 83-89.

Davenport, T. H. and J. G. Harris. 2007. Competing on Analytics: The New Science of Winning. Harvard Business School Press.

Davenport, T. H., J. G. Harris and Robert Morison. 2010. Analytics at Work: Smarter Decisions, Better Results. Harvard Business Press.

Davis, G. B. 1988. Information systems: Productivity gains from computer-aided software engineering. Accounting Horizons (June): 90-93.

De Haes, S. W. Van Grembergen and R. S. Debreceny. 2013. COBIT 5 and enterprise governance of information technology: Building blocks and research opportunities. Journal of Information Systems (Spring): 307-324. (COBIT 5 is a framework for the governance and management of IT).

Dearing, G. 1997. Accounting systems that stand the test of time. Management Accounting (December): 32, 34, 36, 38. (Software).

Debreceny, R. and G. L. Gray. 2004. Grab your picks and shovels! There's gold in your data. Strategic Finance (January): 24-28.

DeCristofaro, J. 2005. Prepare data for Excel. Journal of Accountancy (May): 76-78.

DeFelice, A. 2009. 2009 tax software. Journal of Accountancy (December): 61-66.

DeFelice, A. 2010. 2010 tax software survey. Journal of Accountancy (September): 34-39.

Dembeck, J. L. and D. E. Stout. 1997. Using a spreadsheet to solve a multinational marketing problem. Management Accounting (January): 33-39. (Using linear programming for determining production and sales mix).

Drew, J. 2013. How to develop and publish a mobile app. Journal of Accountancy (February): 24-31.

Drew, J. 2015. 2014 MAP survey: Firms tech it up a notch. Usage rates rise for cloud-based software, video conferencing, and digital payments. Journal of Accountancy (January): 28-31, 34.

Drew, J. 2015. Accounting firms moving slowly toward cloud: MAP survey finds firms still relying heavily on locally installed software. Journal of Accountancy (March): 44-46.

Drew, J. 2015. Beyond spreadsheets: Experts explore what the next few years have in store for accounting technology. First of two parts. Journal of Accountancy (April/May): 36-39.

Drew, J. 2015. Competitive edge: The software vendors' view: Asked to peer into their crystal balls, executives foresee accounting firms experiencing growth with consulting services, value pricing, and data. Journal of Accountancy (August): 54-57.

Drew, J. 2015. Experts warn f cybersecurity 'storm': A knowledge gap and lax practices put client data at high risk of hacker attacks (second of two parts). Journal of Accountancy (June): 26-32.

Duston, R. and H. Keasler Jr. 1996. Off-the shelf software creates custom reports. Management Accounting (February): 48, 50-52, 54.

Eckerson, W. W. Performance Dashboards: Measuring, Monitoring, and Managing Your Business, 2nd edition. Wiley.

Economides, N. and E. Katsamakas. 2006. Two-sided competition of proprietary vs. open source technology platforms and the implications for the software industry. Management Science (July): 1057-1071. (JSTOR link).

Edmonds, T. P. and B. Tsay. 1989. Using lotus 1-2-3 macros as grading assistants. Journal of Accounting Education 7(2): 271-278.

Enzweiler, A. J. 1995. Evaluating client/server financial software. Management Accounting (September): 39-40, 42-45.

Erickson, N. and D. H. Herskovits. 1985. Accounting for software costs: Cracking the code. Journal of Accountancy (November): 81-96.

Ernst, E. E., Z. J. Hendricks and G. Staudacher. 2017. Internal-use software regs. could be boon for financial services industry. Journal of Accountancy (August): 54-59.

Fisher, I. and M. Bradford. 2005. New York State agencies: A case study for analyzing the process of Legacy system migration: Part I. Journal of Information Systems (Fall): 173-189.

Fisher, I. E. and M. Bradford. 2006. New York State agencies: A case study for analyzing the process of Legacy system migration: Part II. Journal of Information Systems (Spring): 139-160.

Fogarty, T., C. Kelliher and P. Goldwater. 1995. Estimating retirement benefits with spreadsheets. Management Accounting (November): 49-55.

Fordham, D. R. and S. Brooks. 1997. Tools for dealing with uncertainty. Management Accounting (September): 38, 40-43. (Spreadsheet applications).

Fedricks, K. and R. Laudenslager. 2011. Sage ACT! 2011 Dashboard and Report Cookbook. Packt Publishing.

Frownfelter-Lohrke, C. 2017. Teaching good Excel design and skills: A three spreadsheet assignment project. Journal of Accounting Education (39): 68-83.

Gaiss, M. 1998. Enterprise performance management. Management Accounting (December): 44-46. (Recommended features of a packaged software system).

Galassi, G. and R. V. Mattessich. 2014. Some clarification to the evolution of the electronic spreadsheet. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting (11): 99-104.

Gannon, J. J. and D. Parkinson. 1983. Software development costs should be expensed. Management Accounting (November): 37-39. (See Paulsen below for another view).

Garud, R., S. Jain and A. Kumaraswamy. 2002. Institutional entrepreneurship in the sponsorship of common technological standards: The case of Sun Microsystems and Java. The Academy of Management Journal 45(1): 196-214. (JSTOR link).

Gavious, I. 2007. Accounting software assets: A valuation model for software. Journal of Information Systems (Fall): 117-132.

Geerts, G. L. 2004. An XML architecture for operational enterprise ontologies. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Accounting (1): 73-85.

Geerts, G. L., B. A. Waddington and C. E. White. 2002. Stevie: A dynamic, between-instructor collaborative internet tool for learning cardinalities. Journal of Information Systems (Spring): 75-89.

Gibson, A. 2016. Technology workbook: Preventive measures in implementation strategy. Strategic Finance (November): 62-63.

Gillespie, J. F., J. R. Reeder and J. H. Wragge. 1985. Safeguarding you spreadsheet. Management Accounting (May): 38-42.

Glynn, J. F. 1971. Computer program: A profitable by-product. Management Accounting (May): 41-42.

Gnatovich, R. 2007. Making a case for business analytics. Strategic Finance (February): 46-51.

Goldwater, P. and T. Fogarty. 2007. The power of arrays: The Excel tool that performs multiple functions in a single step. Journal of Accountancy (March): 52-56.

Gopal, A. and B. R. Koka. 2010. The role of contracts on quality and returns to quality in offshore software development outsourcing. Decision Sciences 41(3): 491-516.

Gornik-Tomaszewski, S. 2014. Capital budgeting simulation using Excel: Enhancing the discussion of risk in managerial accounting classes. Management Accounting Quarterly (Summer): 12-17.

Grant, G. H and S. J. Conion. 2006. EDGAR extraction system: An automated approach to analyze employee stock option disclosures. Journal of Information Systems (Fall): 119-142.

Gray, C. D. 1995. The Right Choice: A Complete Guide to Evaluating, Selecting, and Installing Mrp II Software. Wiley.

Green, R. 1998. The software side of EMU. Management Accounting (August): 42-45. (The European monetary union and the euro).

Greenlee, J. S. and L. Clark. 1995. Beware the software police! Management Accounting (December): 44-45.

Gregg, A. 2017. Start-ups embrace cryptocurrency to raise needed capital: 'Initial coin offerings' let companies raise money without ceding control. The Washington Post (December 4): A13. (Note).

Grewal, R., G. L. Lilien and G. Mallapragada. 2006. Location, location, location: How network embeddedness affects project success in open source systems. Management Science (July): 1043-1056. (JSTOR link).

Haddleton, G. 1998. 10 rules for selecting budget management software. Management Accounting (January): 24, 26-27.

Haley, A. S. 1996. DARWin: The evolution of data collection. Management Accounting (May): 45-47.

Hanna, D. W. 1997. What's up with the middle market? Management Accounting (September): 50-52. (Software).

Harvard Business Review. 2017. Augmented reality in the real world. Harvard Business Review (November/December): 59.

Harvard Business Review. 2017. How does augmented reality work? Harvard Business Review (November/December): 58.

Hayen, R. L. and R. M. Peters. 1989. How to ensure spreadsheet integrity. Management Accounting (April): 30-33.

Heer, R. 2012. How agile is your planning? Find out by measuring the ROI of your planning software. Strategic Finance (April): 44-50.

Hegstad, L. P. 1988. Matchware. Journal of Information Systems (Spring): 94-96.

Henson, H. E. 1997. Backoffice solutions for management accounting. Management Accounting (April): 47-49. (Software).

Hey, T. 2010. The next scientific revolution. Harvard Business Review (November): 56-63. (The four paradigms of science: 1) Theory, 2) Experimentation, 3) Computation and simulation, and 4) Data mining. The next scientific revolution involves using the fourth paradigm, deep-data-mining tools to solve the worlds problems in astronomy, oceanography, healthcare, water management, and climate change).

Hitt, M. A. 2005. Management theory and research: Potential contribution to public policy and public organizations. The Academy of Management Journal 48(6): 963-966. (JSTOR link).

Hofmann, N., R. L. Insner and F. Poschadel. 2017. SAP S/4HANA: Revolution or evolution in business performance management? Cost Management (July/August): 7-19.

Holbrook, K. 2004. Adding value with analytics. Strategic Finance (November): 40-43. (Analytics software for financial managers).

Howell, J. 2015. Moving to the cloud. Strategic Finance (June): 30-37.

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Institute of Management Accountants. 1994. Software package review. Management Accounting (January): 58, 60-62.

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Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. ABC software providers. Management Accounting (March): 54.

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Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies. Management Accounting (June): 51-53.

Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies. Management Accounting (July): 51-53. (Software).

Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies. Management Accounting (November): 54-57.

Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies. Management Accounting (December): 54-56.

Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies - EDI and electronic commerce. Management Accounting (September): 48, 50-51.

Institute of Management Accountants. 1996. Case studies - international. Management Accounting (August): 51-54.

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Jelen, B. 2015. Excel pivot tables and custom numbers. Strategic Finance (December): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2015. Excel poorly formatted dates. Strategic Finance (November): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2015. Excel: What's new in Excel 2016. Strategic Finance (October): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Array formulas in conditional formatting. Strategic Finance (June): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Color-coding values. Strategic Finance (August): 82-83.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Combining many CSV files. Strategic Finance (January): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Interactive reports with power BI. Strategic Finance (October): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Moving subtotals to a new column. Strategic Finance (November): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Problems after upgrading computers. Strategic Finance (September): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Replacing volatile conditional formatting. 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Sentiment analysis. Strategic Finance (May): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Shortening a vlookup. Strategic Finance (February): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Six new functions. Strategic Finance (March): 66-67.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Using an alternative calendar. Strategic Finance (December): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2016. Excel: Using custom lists with the fill handle. Strategic Finance (July): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: Converting dates to quarters. Strategic Finance (February): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: Finding journal entries not in balance. Strategic Finance (March): 66-67.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: Setting pivot table defaults. Strategic Finance (April): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: Sorting with VGA. Strategic Finance (June): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: The function arguments dialog and nested functions. Strategic Finance (May): 66-67.

Jelen, B. 2017. Excel: When "identical" cells don't match. Strategic Finance (January): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: Creating tables from timeline slicers. Strategic Finance (December): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: New features in Office 365. Strategic Finance (September): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: Rank, countif, and floating point errors. Strategic Finance (August): 82-83.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: Split delimited data into new rows. Strategic Finance (November): 66-67.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: The pitfalls of autosave. Strategic Finance (October): 58-59.

Jelen, B. 2017. Technology workbook: Excel: Using paste special. Strategic Finance (July): 58-59.

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LaFollette, G. 2014. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (August): 80. (Fing shows all the network connections (Overlooksoft.com) and Redlaser helps pinpoint the best deals (RedLaser.com).

LaFollette, G. 2014. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (September): 104-105. (GroceryIQ, Mint.com, and Personalcapital.com).

LaFollette, G. 2014. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (October): 66-67. (Lookout.com, Microsoft Office mobile app, and OpenTable.com).

LaFollette, G. 2014. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (November): 86. (IFTTT.com and cloudGOO.com).

LaFollette, G. 2014. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (December): 76. (Clarity.fm, mobile app quickbooks.intuit.com/online, and Xero.com).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (April/May): 114-115. (Apps include Kabbage at kabbage.com, Buypartisan at spendconsciously.com, and Seamless-Grubhub at grubhub.com and seamless.com). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (August): 80. (Apps include Scanner&Translator at danielrekitar.wix.com/transiatoria, Sayhitranslate at sayhitranslate.com, and Transferwise at transferwise.com). (Summary).

LaFollette, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (December): 84. (Apps include Invoice2go at invoice2go.com and Square Register at squareup.com). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (February): 74. (Apps include Slideshark at slideshark.com and on line storage at dropbox.com, onedrive.com, drive-gooble.com, and box.com/personal). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (January): 74. (Apps include Perch at perchapp.com and Umano at Umano.me). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (July): 82. (Apps include Scanbizcards at circleback.com/scanbizcards, and Tripit at tripit.com). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (June): 89. (Apps include Coinbase at coinbase.com and Irs2go at irs.gov/uac/IRS2GoApp). (Summary).

LaFollett, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (March): 74. (Apps include Mobilday at mobileday.com, and Abbyy's Textgrabber at abbyy.com). (Summary).

LaFollette, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (November): 82. (Apps include: Simple In/Out at simpleinout.com, and a web site builder at strikingly.com). (Summary).

LaFollette, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (October): 90. (Apps include Charlie at charlieapp.com, and Notability at gingerlabs.com). (Summary).

LaFollette, G. 2015. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (September): 102. (Apps include Itunes U at tinyurl.com/o4a9itx, AGOGO at agogo.com, and Amazon's Audible at audible.com). (Summary).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (January): 63. (Apps include Doodle for planning meetings, and Timetravel for scheduling ahead with Uber).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (February): 72. (Apps include a typography generator called Word Swag at wordswag.co, and a reminder called Followupthen at followupthen.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (March): 79. (Apps include a sleep machine called Sleepsoftlic at sleepsoftlic.com, and Jet Lag Rooster at jetlagrosster.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (April): 84. (Apps include Hoteltonight at hoteltonight.com, Waze through traffic at waze.com, and Hipmunk at hipmunk.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (May): 74-75. (Apps include Automatic at automatic.com, KIWI at plxkiwi.com, and HUM at hum.com. All use your car's on-board diagnostic port like a Fitbit for your automobile).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (June): 84. (Apps include No more voicemail at nomorevoicemail.co and Google voice at google.com/voice).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (July): 76. (Apps include Wappwolf at wappwolf.com and Architecture at architectureofradio.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (August): 75. (Apps include TunnelBear VPN at tunnlear.com and Easy Group at iphone-easy-group.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (September): 98. (Apps include Trello at trello.com; Wrike at wrike.com; and Slack at slack.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (October): 90. (Apps include Fantastical 2 at flexibits.com, and Cloudmagic at cloudmagic.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (November): 86. (Apps include Camfind at camfindapp.com; My Garden at gardenanswers.com; and Vivino at vivino.com).

LaFollette, G. 2016. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (December): 80. (Apps include Do at ordinarypeople.com; and Asana at asana.com).

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (January): 82.

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (February): 74.

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (March): 80-81.

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (April): 70.

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (June): 88.

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (July): 92. (AIRBNB: What you need to know; Have hotels fight for your reservation on BackBid).

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (August): 74. (Crashplan creates local backups of your data).

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (September): 74. ('When I Work' makes shift scheduling less of a chore).

LaFollette, G. 2017. Expanding your app-titude. Journal of Accountancy (October): 72. (Duet Display enables an additional monitor; Turo brings airbnb model to car rentals).

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Enough already about Obama and Romney...it's still 5 months away.  Let's get down to voting on something about golf and something you can actually vote on right now!  This is a monumental day in the golf industry.  Ok...well not really...not like your vote today is going to be sent to Congress or anything.  But you never know...it might actually have an impact on the entire golf equipment business.  Why?  Because today you're going to be voting on something consumers and industry insiders have been debating for a long time.  And that is "Golf Industry Standards".  What do we mean by industry standards?  Read on...and be sure to VOTE!

Dude, what happened to my pitching wedge?

A foursome stands on the tee box of a par 3.  All four guys are about equal in terms of length and ability, so Jim, Chris, and Bill hit 6 iron onto the green.  Then Tom gets up with his brand new irons and hits the green with a 7 iron.  As Tom smirks and wipes the dirt off his club, the other three guys think to themselves, “Wow, those clubs must have some great new technology…Tom’s longer than ever!”

Sound familiar?  Whether you’re Jim or Tom, you’ve no doubt noticed that modern clubs are longer than their counterparts from days gone by.  The question is: why?  Some of you probably think that it must be all the new technology that companies are pouring into the clubs, right?  After all, that’s what we see in the ads: guys in white coats, fancy laboratories, computer models, scientists watching pros hit balls.  All that science is how they make the ball go farther…right?

WRONG!  You’re a club longer these days because the OEMs took your 6 iron and stamped a “7” on it.  I can hear your objections, “The OEMs wouldn’t do that!  There are standards!  A 7 iron is a 7 iron!”  WRONG AGAIN!  There are absolutely no standards in the golf industry…which, in this writer’s less-than-humble opinion, is a big problem.

The 4 Big Problems

Before I continue, let me show you just how far we are from having any standards.

Lie Angle– Depending on the manufacturer and the model, you could get a 6 iron that’s anywhere from 61 degrees to 62.5 degrees.  That means one iron’s “standard” is almost another iron’s “2 degrees up.”

Length – Variances of up to one inch in length.  Think this doesn’t matter?  Let me chop an inch off all your clubs and see what you think then.  Additionally, drivers have gotten significantly longer over the last few years.  If we go back to the late 70’s and early 80’s, the “standard” was 43”.  As recently as five years ago, one club fitter estimates that the average stock driver length was 45”.  In 2011, that same club fitter saw the average jump to 45.73”.  That's 2.72" inches longer than just 30 years ago.  And I know we are evolving as a species but I don't think we have gotten 3" taller as humans in just 30 years time.

Shaft Flex – This is the one that even informed consumers aren’t aware of, because, unlike loft, lie, and length, it’s very hard to measure.  There is NO STANDARD for what makes a shaft “stiff” or “regular.”  This has led to the OEMs making “stiff” shafts softer and softer to stroke the egos of the masses who want to play a stiff flex, but truly need something softer.  You can claim that this is helping the consumer, but I look at it as being no different than writing “32” on the waist of a fat man’s pants: a pleasant lie to make someone feel better instead of giving them the truth.

Loft– This is the real kicker.  Most OEMs have significant loft variances within their own lineup, and if we look industry-wide we can see pitching wedges as weak as 48 degrees and as strong as 42.5 degrees! This is almost a 6 degree difference.  So now going back to that 6 iron we were talking about, which is now stamped as a 7 iron, really should be stamped as a 4.5 iron. And this only looks at today; if we look at things from a historical perspective we see that even 48 degrees is stronger than pitching wedges used to be…you know, before the gap wedge was “invented.”  So be on the look out in the near future for a new club labeled GAP-GAP wedge, because golfers are going to need them.

How Did We Get Here?

So how did we get here?  Why are we seeing clubs with stronger lofts and longer shafts?  It all goes back to the two things that golfers want: distance and distance.  Imagine your average golfer going into the store to buy a new set of irons.  With apologies to the handful of outliers in the audience, EVERY GOLFER is going to walk out of that store with the irons that he hit the longest.  So what do you do if you’re an OEM whose job is to sell golf clubs?  You strengthen the loft and make the shaft longer, or, as I put it earlier, you stamp a “7” on a 6 iron.

Why Is This A Problem?

So why does this matter?  Why is this “a big problem”?  Primarily because it deceives the consumer and could convince them to buy new clubs under a false premise.  If a golfer was well fit for irons 5 years ago, assuming his swing hasn’t changed, those irons are still a good fit.  He is unlikely to see a major gain in distance with new irons…unless you jack up the loft and stretch the shaft.  You can see the same thing happening with the length of driver shafts as well: the old standard of 43" has been replaced by 45” which has now been replaced by drivers 46” and longer.

Additionally, this lack of standards renders meaningless the language that most golfers use and understand, “I’m 2* upright,” “I’m +1/2 inch.”  2* upright based on what?  The 61* 6 iron or the one that’s 62.5*?  Do you want that extra half inch on top of the extra half inch the OEM already slapped on there for you?  Are you starting to see why this is a problem?

What Do The Golf Companies Have To Say About This?

So...why don't we have any form of "Industry Standards" when it comes to lie, length, flex and loft?  That's what we want to know as well.  That's why in the interest of balance and fairness, I sent out requests to many of the major OEM's (golf companies) to find out what they had to say on this topic.  Although, at the time of publication, only Wilson Golf responded.  The following responses come from Michael Vrska, Wilson Golf’s Global Director of R&D.

Q:Why is it that the OEMs can’t agree on standards:

A: “Golf OEM’s, and certainly Wilson Staff, care about our products and the players who use them, but we don’t care for or agree on a particular set of standards because each of us think we can do it better than the next guy.  The more standards and rules R&D is confined by, the less we can innovate for different player types.  The irons we make for Harrington, Barnes, Streelman and Lawrie require different specs than a guy or gal who has yet to break 100.”

Q:Do you think that the average consumer is helped or harmed by the lack of standards?

A: “I think they are helped greatly.  To look at it from an other-than-golf perspective…  Were consumers helped or harmed that Apple could look at portable music players with a general lack of standards they had to adhere to?  Were consumers helped or harmed that TV manufacturers were not locked into a standard 4:3 aspect ratio and standard resolution?  Competition and different options are great for the consumer.  Without that competition, innovation would slow or even stop.  I believe that would be true for golf clubs as well if R&D was more confined.  There are some smart engineers at Wilson, and other R&D groups as well, that live, breath, eat and sleep golf equipment and I want them turned loose to be as creative as possible.”

Q:Who benefits from the lack of uniformity?

A: “The consumer ultimately benefits.  I understand there can be some confusion when it comes to what may be the right loft or lie or shaft for a player, but launch monitors and custom fitting are wonderful tools that more players should take advantage of and can eliminate that confusion.  You can find out if your irons need to be bent 2o upright or are gapped properly for you.  There is a golf club head, shaft and set that will look, feel and perform best for every player; hit a few options and get fit to figure out what that is.”

My Response

Before I comment on his answers, I want to say that I have immense respect for Wilson Golf for actually responding to my questions.  They knew what they were getting into and they didn’t run from it.  That said: I don’t agree that changing specs is “innovating” or “creative,” nor am I suggesting that anyone be forced to play a tour pro’s clubs.  What I am suggesting is that every 6I be the same loft, length, and lie, so that I can compare apples to apples when I try different clubs, and that my fitting of “2 degrees up, +1/2 inch” translates from brand to brand.  And speaking of Apple, I take exception to his comparison between standard specs and Beta Max.  I’m not suggesting we force every OEM to use steel instead of titanium: simply that drivers be 45” so I know which one is the best, not which shaft is the longest.

What Does Golf Club Designer Tom Wishon Have To Say?

The next man we interviewed Tom Wishon, is not only one of the industries most highly respected members of the golf equipment industry he also dedicated his career to clubfitting research and development.  Wishon also headed up a panel some years ago made up of industry experts who tried to get the golf industry to commit to a standard of measurements.  His efforts were unfortunately unsuccessful.

Q:Why is it that the OEMs can’t agree on standards?

A: For one, they see no value to themselves to do so.  OEM's only do things if they see benefit for themselves in it.  Hence the ONLY thing I have seen of this nature is when some of them pooled their resources to form a unified legal team to track down counterfeit clubs and factories that make them.   So far, no one has been able to impress upon them that there is any value to them in doing spec measurement standards.

There is nothing wrong with making the specs of your clubs to be whatever you think they should be – but there is something wrong with doing that and not saying anything about what those specs are.  If standards are nothing but an average for each specification, such as 45” is the standard for men’s driver length or 27* is the standard industry loft for a 5 iron, the OEM's don’t want their specs to be labeled as being either over or under some standard.

Again, we do not need a STANDARD MEASUREMENT FOR ALL SPECIFICATIONS but it would be nice to have a STANDARD FORM OF MEASUREMENT for all the specifications of golf clubs – and then to have a repository of measurements of each company’s clubs all done using the standard form of measurement so that consumers could really compare specs of clubs to each other.  Some of this stuff we sort of already have – lofts, lies, face angles, lengths, offset, swingweights – they are mostly all listed for each club  in each model on each company’s website and really, these specs can be considered to be quite comparable.  Without a declared standard, we all pretty much measure loft, lie, face angle, offset, swingweight the same way.

But if you could add things like center of gravity location for the driver, 3 wood, 3 hybrid and 6 iron in each model, MOI of the driver, 3 wood, 3 hybrid and 6 iron in each model, actual shaft stiffness profile (like my measurements), grip diameter, and some others – well then you would have more helpful info.  And of course shafts is in a horrible condition now for any means to inform consumers how stiff this shaft is compared to that shaft.

Q:Do you think that the average consumer is helped or harmed by the lack of standards?

A: In some areas without a question consumers are hurt.  Shaft flex is one for sure.  I cannot imagine if I were a golfer without any real tech knowledge of clubs who was interested in one of these shafts that cost $200-300.  How can you possibly know if any shaft is going to match your swing without buying it?  Not many places have many of these high dollar shafts all in demo clubs for you to hit – and even if they do, the other specs on the club in which the expensive shaft is installed like the loft, lie, length, face angle, etc., probably don’t fit your swing so you can’t get a decent evaluation from hitting the shaft often times.

Then you have the OEM Drivers which are not really made to the loft that is printed or engraved on the head.  That’s a really unfortunate deal for consumers – to tell them one thing but knowingly not deliver that spec?

Q:Who benefits from the lack of uniformity?

A: I’d love to say no one does.  But the sheer fact the OEM's refuse this tells you something loud and clear.  Keeping golfers in the dark also can keep the golfer searching to buy the next club and the next club after that in the HOPE that he’s going to find the right one that helps him really hit the ball better.  Imagine how bad it would be for an OEM to help a golfer find the perfect golf club for his swing the very first time.  They’d likely not see him as a customer for more clubs ever again or at the least, his buying frequency would be slowed down.

And I bet the farm that the number of “club ho’s” who buy new clubs every year because they love equipment, they love to have the latest thing, they love to keep searching is a big number, so big that if it were reduced by 1/3 the OEM's would get measurably hurt in terms of annual revenue.  Not having any way to quantitatively compare clubs, shafts, clubheads certainly could be said to perpetuate club ho’ism and all the additional sales it brings to the OEMs.

What Does A Master Club Fitter Have To Say About This?

I also sought out the opinion of Nick Sherburne the Master Club Fitter/Builder at Club Champion, on those same questions.  As a club expert who is unaffiliated with any particular OEM, I thought he might have a unique perspective.

Q:Why don’t OEMs agree on a common set of standards?

A: “I guess there is no real reason to need a standard.  They most likely set their standards as individual companies for a few different reasons:

To differentiate themselves from each other.

To create their advantage.  Examples could be making lofts stronger or making clubs longer to hit the ball farther, or conversely shorter clubs to add control.”

Q:Do you think that consumers are helped or harmed by the lack of standards?

A: “It’s definitely hard for the average consumer to know what they are buying without lots of research or a helping hand from a premium club fitter.  As equipment evolves, what a golfer needs can change over time without them even knowing it.  For example, a golfer may be fit for clubs that are one degree upright and then two years later buy a new set and have them built to the same specifications.  However, if the standard has changed that golfer may need something flatter or something more upright, it depends on which clubs they wind up buying.

Standards could help the consumer, but they also may make golfers feel like they don’t need to be properly fit for clubs and we know that the benefits of proper fitting are apparent at this point.”

I think Nick raises an excellent point: this lack of standardization does put a lot of importance on the club fitter.  Seems like I can’t write a single article without beating that drum that tells you, “Go get fit!”  Oh well.  Back on point, though, it is the “average” golfer that I am concerned about, the guy who might get fit through a big box, but definitely doesn’t have the advantage of working with a place like Club Champion.  This is the guy who, in my opinion, is being taken advantage of by the games that are being played with modern golf clubs.

Conclusion

So where do we go from here?  How do we change this?  Well, if you agree with this article and the statements within, I highly suggest you cast your vote, asking for more "Golf Industry Standards".  And if you don’t agree with this article, well you can cast your vote that you don't think their needs to be more "Golf Industry Standards".

Either way you should vote and have your voice be heard.  You can cast your vote below:

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