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Guided Reading Imperialism Case Study Nigeria Answers To Impossible Quiz

Presentation on theme: "CH. 27- The Age of Imperialism:"— Presentation transcript:

1 CH. 27- The Age of Imperialism: 1850-1914

2 Section 1- The Scramble for Africa
Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European nations.They wanted more resources to fuel their industrial production.They competed for new markets for their goods.Many nations looked to Africa as a source for raw materials and a market for industrial goods.As a result, colonial powers seized vast areas of Africa during the 19th and early 20th centuries.Driven by rivalries among themselves, Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Spain, and Portugal placed almost all of Africa under European rule between 1880 and 1890.Imperialism is the seizure of a county or territory by a stronger country. (The extension of a nation’s power over other lands.)This “new imperialism,” as some historians have called it, was not content to have trading posts and agreements, as the old imperialism was, but wanted direct control over territories.There was a strong economic motive for Western nations to increase their search for colonies after 1880.Europeans wanted direct control of the raw materials and markets it found in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.As occurred throughout most of Africa, stronger countries dominated the political, economic, and social life of the weaker countries.

3 Africa Before European Domination
In the mid-1800s, African peoples were divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups.Most continued to follow traditional beliefs, while some converted to Christianity or Islam.These groups spoke more than 1,000 different languages.Politically, they ranged from large empires than united many ethnic groups to independent villages.Europeans had established contacts with sun-Saharan Africans as early as the 1450s.However, powerful African armies were able to keep the Europeans out of most of Africa for 400 years.In fact, as late as 1880, Europeans controlled on 10% of the continent’s land, mostly on the coast.European travel to the interior was virtually impossible, they could not navigate the rivers, because of rapids, cataracts, and changing flows.It was not until the introduction of steam-powered riverboats, in the early 1800s, that Europeans were able to conduct major expeditions into the interior of Africa.Also, disease discouraged exploration.Finally, Africans controlled their own trade networks and provided the trade items. Also, these networks were specialized.

4 Nations Compete for Overseas Empires
Those Europeans who did penetrate the interior of Africa were explores, missionaries, or humanitarians who opposed the European and American slave trade.European and Americans leaned about African through travel books and newspapers.These publications competed for readers by hiring reporters to search the globe for stories of adventure, mystery, or excitement.

5 The Congo Sparks Interest
David Livingstone trekked through the unexplored interior for 30 years.In the 1860s, David Livingstone traveled deep into central Africa to promote Christianity.Several years passed with no word from Livingstone and many feared he was dead.The New York Herald, an American newspaper, hired Henry Stanley to find Livingstone.In 1871, Stanley found Livingstone and gave the famous greeting, “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

6 King Leopold IIAfter finding Livingstone, Stanley explored Africa, especially the Congo River.His explorations attracted the attention of King Leopold II of Belgium, who hired Stanley to help him obtain land in the Congo.King Leopold II was the real driving force behind the colonization of Central Africa.From , Stanley helped Leopold gain control of lands in the Congo.Leopold claimed his motive in establishing the colony was to abolish the slave trade and promote Christianity.However, he licensed companies that brutally exploited the people of the Congo by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants.At least 10 million Congolese died from abuse inflicted during Leopold’s rule.As a result of his cruelty, humanitarians around the world cried for change.In 1908, the Belgium government took control of the colony away from Leopold.The Belgian Congo, as the colony later became known, was 80 times larger than Belgium.The Belgian governments seizure of the Congo alarmed France.Earlier, in 1882, the French had approved a treaty that gave France the north bank of the Congo River.Soon Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were also claiming part of Africa.

7 Forces Driving Imperialism
The motives that drove colonization in Africa were also at work in other lands.Similar economic, political, and social forces accelerated the drive to take over land in all parts of the globe.The Industrial Revolution in particular provided European countries with a reason to add lands to their control.As European nations industrialized, they searched for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies.

8 Belief in European Superiority
The race for colonies grew out of a strong sense of national pride.European nations acquired colonies to gain an advantage over European rivals looking for colonies and world power.Europeans viewed an empire as a measure of greatness.Having colonies was a source of national prestige.As the competition for colonies intensified, each country was determined to claim as much of the world as possible.Many Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples.The belief that one race is superior to others is called racism.This attitude was a reflection of Social Darwinism, a social theory that applied Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution and natural selection to human society.This theory said that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others.To social Darwinists, the imperialist European nations were simply exerting themselves in the struggle for the fittest to survive. The losing nations were considered racially inferior nations.According to the theory, non-Europeans were considered to be on a lower scale of culture and physical development because the had not made the scientific and technological progress that Europeans had.

9 “White Man’s Burden”Europeans of the time believed they had the right and duty to bring progress to other countries of the world.The push for expansion also came from missionaries who worked to convert the people of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands to Christianity. (White Man’s Burden)Many missionaries believed that European rule was the best way to end evil practices such as the slave trade.They also wanted to “civilize,” that is, to “Westernize,” the peoples of the world.

10 Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
Several factors contributed to the European conquest of Africa:1. Superior Technology--The Maxim gun, invented in 1884, world’s first automatic machine gun. European countries were able to quickly acquire the Maxim, while the resisting Africans were forced to rely on outdated weapons.-The steam engine, allowed Europeans to travel rivers and establish bases deep in the African continent.-Railroads, cables, and steamships allowed close communications within a colony and between the colony ant its controlling nation.2. The perfection of the drug quinine in 1829, eventually protected Europeans from becoming infected with malaria. Before, Europeans were highly susceptible to Malaria, a disease carried by the dense swarms of Mosquitoes in Africa’s interior.3. African’s were not united. Africa had a huge variety of languages and cultures that discouraged unity. Wars fought between ethnic groups over land, water, and trade rights also prevented a unified stand. Europeans learned to play rival groups against each other.

11 The Division of AfricaThe scramble for African territory began about 1880.At that time, the French began to expand from the West African coast toward western Sudan.The discoveries of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1886 in South Africa increased the European interest in colonizing the continent.No European power wanted to be left out of the race.

12 Berlin Conference Divides Africa
The competition was so intense that European countries feared war amongst themselves.To prevent conflict, 14 European nations met at the Berlin Conference in to lay down rules for the division of Africa.They agreed that any European nation could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of its claims and showing it could control the area.The European nations divided the continent with little thought about how African ethnic or linguistic groups were distributed.Also, no African ruler was invited to the Conference.By 1914, only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free from European control.

13 Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies
When European countries began colonizing, many believed that Africans would soon be buying European goods in great quantities.They were wrong, few African bought European goods.However, European countries needed raw materials.The major source of wealth from Africa was raw materials.Africa had rich mineral resources.The Belgium Congo contained untold wealth in copper and tin.South Africa had great riches in gold and diamonds.Businesses eventually developed cash-crop plantations to grow peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber.These products displaced the food crops grown by farmers to feed their families.

14 Three Groups Clash over South Africa
South Africa demonstrated the impact that Europeans had on African peoples.The history of South Africa is a history of Africans, Dutch, and British clashing over land and resources.Although the African lands seemed empty to Europeans, various ethnic groups had competing claims over huge areas.The local control of these lands, especially in the east, had ben disputed for about 100 years.

15 Zulus Fight the British
From the late 1700s to the late 1800s, a series of local wars shook southern Africa.Around 1816, Shaka, a Zulu chief, used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state.His successors, however, were unable to keep the British from taking them over.In 1879, Cetshwayo refused to accept British rule and the British invaded the Zulu nation.Even with inferior weapons, the Zulu almost defeated the British.However, the Zulu lost the Battle of Ulundi and in 1887 the Zulu nation fell to the British.

16 Boers and British Settle in the Cape
The first Europeans to settle in South Africa had been the Dutch.The Dutch came to the Cape of Good Hope in 1652.Dutch settlers were known as Boers (or Afrikaners).The Boers gradually took Africans’ land and established large farms.When the British took over Cape Colony permanently in the early 1800s, they and the Boers clashed over British policy regarding land and slaves.In the 1830s, to escape the British, several thousand Boers moved north and established the independent republics of Transvaal–later the South African Republic–and the Orange Free State.This movement is known as the Great Trek.The Boers found themselves fighting with African groups whose land they were taking.The Boers believed white supremacy was ordained by God; therefore, they put a many indigenous (native) peoples on reservations.

17 Cecil RhodesDiamonds and gold were discovered in South Africa in the 1860s and 1880s.In the 1880s British policy in South Africa was influenced by Cecil Rhodes, who had set up diamond and gold companies that had made him fabulously wealthy.He named the territory north of the Transvaal Rhodesia, after himself.Rhodes’s ambitions led to his downfall in 1896.The British government forced him to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony after finding out he planned to overthrow the Boer government of the South African Republic without British approval.

18 The Boer WarThe Boers tried to keep “outsiders” from gaining political rights.An attempt to start a rebellion against the Boers failed.The Boers blamed the British, and in 1899 took arms up against them.The Boer War between the Boers and the British was the first modern “total” war.The Boer War was fought from 1899 to 1902.The Boers launched commando raids and used guerilla tactics against the British.The British countered by burning Boer farms and imprisoned about 120,000 women and children in concentration camps, where about 20,000 died.Black South Africans were also involved in the war.Some fought; others severed as scouts, guards, drivers, and workers.Many black South Africans were captured by the British and placed in concentration camps, where over 14,000 died.Britain finally won the war.In 1910, the Boer republics were joined into a self-governing Union of South Africa, which was controlled by the British.This was a self-governing nation within the British Empire.To appease the Boers, the policy was that only whites and a few propertied Africans could vote.The establishment of colonies signaled a change in the way of life for the Africans.The European made efforts to change the political, social, and economic lives of the people they conquered.

19 Section 2- Imperialism Case Study: Nigeria
Group Activity- PowerPoint or PreziThe class will be divided into 3 Groups.Group 1- A New Period of Imperialism (pg 779 & 781)Group 1- A British Colony (pg )Group 2- African Resistance (pg )Group 3- The Legacy of Colonial Rule (pg 784)Day 1- Research: You and your group will read your group’s assigned section. After reading, your group will discuss what has been read. After discussing, your group will develop a verbal and visual presentation over your group’s section. Note: Be sure to include the main ideas from your group’s section in your group’s verbal and visual presentation.Day 2- Presentations: You and your group will give your verbal and visual presentations that was developed during Day 1. Everyone in the group must present verbally (Everyone must Talk!). A individual’s failure to present will result in a grade of 0.

20 Group Activity- Technology: PowerPoint or Prezi Rubric
20 points available for the Group Activity10 points: Attendance--5 points for attendance on Day1-5 points for attendance on Day2*NOTE- Students must be present for both days of the Group Activity, or they will have a make-up assignment.5 points: Participation--Students works well with group mates and contributes to the development of the presentation.5 points: Presentation--Students help develop and create the presentation and verbally present.

21 Section 2- Imperialism Case Study: Nigeria
The Berlin Conference of was a European conference.And, although black South Africans participated in it, the Boer War was largely a European war.Europeans argued and fought among themselves over the lands of Africa.In carving up the continent, the European countries paid little or no attention to historical political divisions of to the many ethnic and language groupings in Africa.Uppermost in the minds of the Europeans was the ability to control Africa’s land, its people, and its resources.

22 A New ImperialismThe imperialism of the 18th and 19th centuries was conducted differently from the explorations of the 15th and 16th centuries.In the earlier period, imperial powers often did not penetrate far into the conquered areas in Asia and Africa, nor did they always have a substantial influence on the lives of the people.During this new imperialism, the Europeans demanded more influence over the economic, political, and social lives of the people.They were determined to shape the economies of the lands to benefit European economies.They also wanted the people to adopt European customs.However, the chief goal of the Western powers in their colonies was still to exploit the natural resources and open up markets for Western manufactured goods.

23 Forms of ControlEach European nation had certain policies and goals for establishing colonies.To establish control of an area, Europeans used different methods.Over time, 4 forms of colonial control emerged: colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism.See Chart on pg. 780.In practice, gaining control over an area might involve the use of several of these forms.

24 Methods of ManagementEuropean rulers also developed methods of day-to-day management. 2 basic methods emerged.Britain and other nations- such as the U.S. in its Pacific Island colonies- preferred indirect control.This approach was the preferred route because it made ruling easier and less costly.France and most other European nations used a more direct control.Later, when colonies gained independence, the management method used had an influence on the type of government chosen in the new nation.

25 Indirect Control Indirect control relied on existing political rulers.
In some areas, the British asked the local ruler to accept British authority to rule.These local officials handled much of the daily management of the colony.In addition, each colony had a legislative council that included colonial officials as well as local merchants and professionals nominated by the colonial governor.The assumption was that the councils would train local leaders in the British method of government and that a time would come when the local population would govern itself. This had happened in Canada and Australia.In the 1890s, the U.S. began to colonize and chose an indirect method of control for the Philippines.

26 Direct ControlThe French and other European powers preferred more direct control.They viewed Africans as unable to handle the complex business of running a country.Based on this attitude, Europeans developed a policy called paternalism.Using this policy, Europeans governed in a paternal way by providing for people’s needs but not giving them rights.The Europeans brought in their own bureaucrats and did not train local people in European methods of governing.The French also supported a policy of assimilation, the idea that local populations would adopt French culture and become like the French.To aid in the transition, all schools, courts, and businesses were patterned after French institutions.In practice, the French abandoned the ideal of assimilation for all but a few places and settled for a policy of “association,” which was similar to indirect control.They reorganized African institutions and culture but regarded them as inferior to French culture.

27 Case Study: Nigeria- A British Colony
A close look at Britain’s rule of Nigeria illustrates the forms of imperialism used by European powers to gain control of an area.It also shows management methods used to continue the control of the economic and political life of the area.Case Study: Nigeria- A British Colony

28 Gaining ControlBritain gained control of southern Nigeria through both diplomatic and military means.Some local rulers agreed to sigh treaties of protection and accept British residence.Others opposed foreign intervention and rebelled against it.The British used force to defeat these rebellions.The Conquest of northern Nigeria was accomplished through the Royal Niger Company.The company gained control of the pal-oil trade along the Niger River after the Berlin Conference gave Britain a protectorate over the Niger River delta.In 1914, the British claimed the entire area of Nigeria as a colony.

29 Managing the ColonyIn this new age of imperialism, it was necessary not only to claim a territory but also to govern the people living there.However, managing Nigeria would not prove easy, it was on e of the most culturally diverse areas in Africa.About 250 different ethnic groups lived there. The 3 largest were the Hausa-Fulani in the north, the Yoruba in the southwest, and the Igbo in the southeast.These groups were different in many ways.The Hausa-Fulani were Muslim and had a strong central government.The Igbo and Yoruba followed traditional religions and relied on local chiefs for control.Britain did not have enough troops to govern such a complex area, so they turned to indirect rule.Ruling indirectly through local officials worked well with the Hausa-Fulani.However, this management method did not work well with the Igbo and Yoruba, because their local chiefs resented having their power limited by the British.

30 African ResistanceAs in Nigeria, Africans across the continent resisted European attempts to colonize their lands.However, the contest between African states and European powers was never equal because of the Europeans’ superior arms.Africans resisted the Europeans with whatever force they could raise and often surprised the Europeans with their military ability.With the single exception of Ethiopia, all these attempts at resistance failed in the end.

31 Unsuccessful Movements
The unsuccessful resistance attempts included active military resistance and resistance through religious movements.One example is Algeria’s almost 50-year resistance to French rule.Another example of active resistance is the resistance movement led by Samori Toure in West Africa against the French. After modernizing his army, he fought the French for 16 years.

32 The Maji Maji Rebellion
Africans in German East Africa put their faith in a spiritual defense.African villagers resisted the German insistence that they plant cotton, a cash crop for export, rather that attend to their own food crops.In 1905, the belief suddenly arose that a magic water (maji-maji) sprinkled on their bodies would turn the Germans’ bullets into water.The uprising became known as the Maji Maji rebellion.Over 29 different ethnic groups united to fight for their freedom.The fighters believed that their war had been ordained by God and that their ancestors would return to life and assist their struggle.However, when resistance fighters armed with spears and protected by the magic water attacked a German machine-gun post, they were mowed down by the thousands.Officially, Germans recorded 75,000 resistors dead, but more than twice that number perished in the famine that followed.The Germans were shaken by the rebellion and its outcome.As a result, they made some government reforms in a effort to make colonialism more acceptable to Africans.

33 Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance
Ethiopia was the only African nation to successfully resist the Europeans.Its victory was due to one man- Menelik II, emperor of Ethiopia.He successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other, all of whom were striving to bring Ethiopia into their spheres of influence.He built up a large arsenal of modern weapons purchased form France and Russia.In 1889, shortly after signing a treaty with Italy, be discovered differences between the wording of the treaty in the Ethiopian language and in Italian.Menelik believed he was giving up a tiny portion of Ethiopia, but the Italians claimed all of Ethiopia as a protectorate.So as Italian forces were advancing into northern Ethiopia, Menelik declared war.In 1896, in the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces defeated the Italians and kept their nation independent.

34 The Legacy of Colonial Rule
European colonial rule forever altered Africans’ lives.In some cases, the Europeans brought benefits, but for the most part, the effects were negative.

35 Negative EffectsAfricans lost control of their land and their independence.Many died of disease, such as smallpox.Many were killed in resisting the Europeans.Famines resulted from the change to cash crops in pace of subsistence agriculture.African also suffered from a breakdown of their traditional culture.Contempt for the traditional culture and admiration of European life undermined the stable societies and caused identity problems for Africans.The most harmful political legacy from the colonial period was the division of the African continent.The artificial boundaries combined or unnaturally divided groups, creating problems that plagued African colonies during European occupation.These boundaries continue to create problems for the nations that evolved for the former colonies.

36 Positive Effects Colonialism reduced local warfare.

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